The study of the concentration of the free B-subunit HCG is used in the diagnosis and monitoring of trophoblastic diseases and some testicular tumors, as a result of which the content of the free B-subunit HCG is increased.
Special testimony to research are the age of women older than 35 years; The presence in the child's family (or in the history of the chopped pregnancy) with a genetically confirmed Down disease, other chromosomal diseases, congenital developmental defects; hereditary diseases near the nearest relatives; Radiation irradiation or other harmful effects on one of the spouses before conception.
Preparation Blood is recommended in the morning, from 8 to 12 hours. Blood takes on an empty stomach or 4-6 hours of starvation. It is allowed to use water without gas and sugar. On the eve of the study, food overloads should be avoided.
Non-invasive study, which, on the basis of certain laboratory markers and clinical data, allows us to calculate the likely risk of developing chromosomal diseases or other congenital fetal abnormalities using a computer program.
Due to restrictions on the use of calculated methods for determining the risk of congenital anomalies of the fetus, the calculation of such risks at multiple pregnancy with 3 and more fruits is impossible.
Prenatal screening of trisomy II trimester of pregnancy is performed to assess the likelihood of the most common fruit anomalies - trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome) and a nervous tube defect for a period of 14 and 22 weeks of pregnancy. The risk factors of such anomalies include genera over 35 years old, multiple pregnancy, the presence in the obstetric history of fruits with chromosomal anomalies (trisomy 21, 13 or 18), concomitant HIV infection, pregnancy, which has occurred as a result of eco, smoking and diabetes . At the same time, the age of the mother is the most significant factor. Thus, the risk of developing chromosomal fetal anomalies increases sharply after 35 years (1: 179 compared with 1: 476, a woman is 25 years old).
Definition of AFP in conjunction with chorionic gonadotropin and estrine (the so-called triple test) for 15-20 weeks of pregnancy is used to screen defects for the development of fetus and chromosomal anomalies. This screening analysis makes it possible to estimate the likelihood of the presence of genetic diseases and malformations, but its result is not an absolute indicator of pathology or normal development of the fetus.
The chorionic gonadotropin of a person (HCG) is produced in the fruit sheath of the human embryo. It is an important indicator of the development of pregnancy and its deviations. The maximum level of hCG reaches on the 10-11th week, and then gradually decreases. According to this indicator, one can judge the prosperous course of pregnancy and identify violations of the fetus.
alpha fetoprotein is produced in the embryonic yolk bag, liver and epithelium of the fetal intestine, its level depends on the state of the gastrointestinal tract, the kidneys of the fetus and the placental barrier. He takes an active part in the full development of the fetus. In the blood of his mother, its concentration gradually increases from the 10th week of pregnancy and reaches a maximum for 30-32 weeks. In this regard, AFP is used as a non-specific marker of the state of the fetus and the presence of obstetric pathology.
Estrogen free is the main estrogen pregnancy and is of great importance for the normal development and functioning of the fetoplazentar complex. Its concentration increases since the formation of the placenta and is progressively growing with pregnancy. The low concentration of free estriol combined with high rates of beta-hCG and Alfa-FP is associated with an increased risk of latency of intrauterine development of the fetus and complications of the third trimester of pregnancy (premature celaiming placenta and preeclampsia).
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