Recently, there have been a lot of rumors about the so-called rezv conflict and group conflict. It is worthwhile to find out that she has a rhesv-negative group of blood, she almost hysteria: "I am threatened with a rhesus conflict! I can not make a pregnancy! "It comes to the point that some women say that they are contraindicated to pregnant, because they have a rezes-negative blood type. Many doctors lead so absurd explanations that they are sometimes surprised, how good is human fantasy. And what do the data of modern medicine and science say? I will try to explain to you that not everything is so scary with regard to the massacre and blood groups, like sometimes you read about it or hear from friends and friends.
Maternal hemo immunization (with immunization, sensitization) is a state of a woman when its protective system is produced by antibodies (IgG immunoglobulins) on foreign red blood tales (red blood cells). In the people, and among the doctors, the name "group or rear conflict" is common, which is outdated and inaccurate.
Alien erythrocytes can fall into the body of a pregnant woman when overflowing blood and blood products and from the fetus under the influence of various factors. In such a way that the production of antibodies of the mother began, which can be determined using serological analyzes, the erythrocytes of the fetus should be in the blood flow of the mother.
Most often, the erythrocytes of the fetus fall into the bloodstream of the mother during the interruption of pregnancy (abortions, miscarriages), bleeding (pairing placenta spontaneous or as a result of injury), surgical procedures (fence of the chorione, amniocentsis, core center, manual placenta separation, laser coagulation of placenta vessels or umbilical coagulation , etc.
), ectopic pregnancy. The protective system of women produces antibodies to specific agents (antigens) placed on the surface of erythrocytes of the fetus. These antibodies belong to the IgG group, and therefore can penetrate the placenta and get into the bloodstream of the fetus.
The newborn children may also have a hemolytic disease, which is often manifested by the yellow color of the child's skin and an elevated level of a special substance in the blood - bilirubin.
Unfortunately, many doctors do not know that there is a minimum of five types of yellow newborn, and most often these jaundice are very safe, and hemolytic jaundice, requiring blood transfusion, is infrequent - 1-2 cases per 10,000 newborns.
Before introducing into the practice of the prevention of the "reserves of conflict" by the introduction of anti-antibodies in women in certain cases, 1% of all pregnancies proceeded with manifestations of anti -usus sensitization, that is, the appearance of anti-antibodies in the blood of the mother. Now, due to timely prevention, the rear sensitization is found in 10 cases by 10,000 birth.
Mother sensitization depends on the number of pregnancies. If blood and blood products are not introduced before pregnancy (blood transfusion, blood plasma, the introduction of the erythrocyte mass), then in its serum, anti-rear antibodies should be absent.
Therefore, even if, with the first pregnancy, the erythrocytes of the fetus fall into the blood of the mother, the occurrence of the hemolytic disease of the newborn is unlikely. With the normal course of first pregnancy (without bleeding), the erythrocytes of the fetus can get into the mother's body during childbirth, which is not dangerous for a mother or a newborn.
It is important to understand that a rhesus-negative woman and a rhesus-positive father, a chance of conception of a rhesus-positive child may not be at all. Therefore, excessive passion for numerous definitions of antibody titers or other methods of surveying reserves-negative women are very uncommon.
Another gross mistake based on knowing the issue is the definition of antibody titer (anti-rhine, group) at the father's father! It must be remembered that the antibodies in the mother's organism are produced on the erythrocytes of the fetus, as it is a carrier of this fetus.
Men will not be pregnant, so they do not have direct contact with the fruit, and therefore in their blood can not be antibodies to the erythrocytes of the child.
The ignorance of this issue among medical personnel in some medical institutions of the former countries of the Union reached the present absurdity, and a married couple intimidated by numerous analyzes, which creates a lot of stress in the life of a pregnant woman. The old concept of "hemolyzine" is no longer used in modern medicine.
Under hemolyns, it is customary to understand the substances that destroy the red blood cells, that is, lead to hemolysis. There may be many such substances. Although mothers antibodies can destroy the erythrocytes of the fetus (have a hemolysis effect on them), but for mothers such antibodies are not hemolyns.
There are about 50 different erythrocyte antigens, which may cause all-mumunization of the mother and hemolytic disease of the fetus. However, the most common are the antigens of the Rh-groups (Rh. ) - D, C, C, E and E. Most often, the hemolytic anemia of the fetus causes the antigen D. with the introduction of anti-rim immunoglobulin preventive vaccines (RHOGAM, anti-d, etc.
) in the 60s in the daily practice of obsteckers The level of maternal hemo-immunization and cases of hemolytic disease significantly decreased in all countries World. A very small number of people have a so-called weak D-factor, or not expressed, sub-phenotypic.
Rh-negative blood group meets more often among the white population (Europeans - 15-16%, Spanish basks - up to 35%), less often among the black population of North America (up to 7%), and even less often among the Asian and the African population (up to 1%). The process of sensitization affects the group affiliation of the fetus.
It turns out that if a rhesus-positive child has the same blood-based blood group with the mother, the mother has a chance for the occurrence of alco-immunization is 15-16%, if the anti -usus immunoglobulin has not been introduced before that.
If the child's blood type in the avo system does not coincide with the mother's blood group, the chance of all-immunization is significantly reduced and is 1. 5-2%.
This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the maternal protection system destroys the erythrocytes of the fetus, which fell into the bloodstream of the mother, the production of group antibodies even before their appearance will begin to produce antibodies. The most commonly encountered alco-immunization of the RHD antigen with the production of specific antibodies on it.
But with the widespread preventive vaccination in developed countries, cases of hemolytic anemia of the fetus in women with D an antigen occurs more and less often. There are several types of other antigens, antibodies for which can cause the anemia of the fetus (hemolytic disease of the fetus). Kell, C, E antigens are very well known.
Virtually rare hemolytic disease is associated with the following antigens: E, C, CE, CE, CW, KPA, KPB, K, JKA, S, WRA, FYA. Biles, COA, DIA, DIB, DOA, ENA, FYB, Good, HEIBEL, JKB, LUA, LUB, M, MIA, MTA, N, Radin, S, U, YTA, ZD are extremely rarely found. Does not cause antibody anemia for antigen LEA, LEB, P. Usually the laboratories are determined by antibodies on the 3-5 most common antigen.
The destruction of red blood cells is called hemolysis. Hemolysis can be caused by a number of factors. In the case of pregnancy, antibodies that are produced by the mother for the woman itself are not dangerous, as they are produced on foreign red blood tales (erythrocytes) of the fetus.
Penetrating through the placenta and umbilical umbilical in the bloodstream of the fetus, these antibodies can destroy the erythrocytes of the fetus, causing hemolysis, and therefore the anemia (anemia) of the fetus. This condition is called the hemolytic disease of the fetus and a newborn.
When decaying the erythrocytes, bilirubin is formed, which the liver does not have time to neutralize, and the kidneys do not have time to withdraw, which can manifest itself with the state of jaundice. The degree of anemia of the fetus and a newborn can be from weakly pronounced to serious complications in the form of pleural effusion, ascites, which is called water fetus.
In some cases, such a state can end the fetal death. In newborns, the danger represents the Kerniktarus - the state when free bilirubin accumulates to the cells of the nervous system, first of all, in the child's brain, it can also lead to the death of a child or severe neurological consequences.
Each pregnant woman at the first visit to the doctor should be determined by a blood type, rezes-affiliation and an antibody titer. If a woman is rezes-negative and she has no antibodies, it is a candidate for the introduction of anti -usus immunoglobulins. If a woman is rezes-negative and she has antibodies, then behind the level of antibodies they are watching throughout the pregnancy.
If the woman is reserves-positive, the level of antibodies is not determined. The father's father is not necessarily a group of blood, and even more so determining the level of any antibodies that many doctors make mistaken due to the lack of knowledge in this matter.
In the bloodstand, the erythrocyte of the fetus will never fall, so the father cannot have antibodies on the erythrocytes of the fetus. The definition of a group of blood from the father is advisable only by testimony if a woman has a rezes-negative blood type, but it is even better to determine the genetic combination of rhesus genes to predict a blood group in a child.
If a man has a rezes-negative blood type, the probability of alco-immunization has a negative woman. However, not always a husband or partner of a woman can be a biological father of the child (for example, after eco-donor sperm). In 3-5% of cases of pregnancy, paternity is not known or not defined.
The main goal of making pregnant women with a negative Rh-factor is to prevent sensitization, that is, the development of the protective system of the mother of antibodies to the child's erythrocytes that have fallen into the bloodstream of the mother.
The fetal erythrocyte hit is not always possible, although such women have some of the procedures (fence of the chorion village, amneenocentsis, cordocentsis) must be minimized. The production of antibodies is suppressed by the introduction of an anti-convertible immunoglobulin, that is, a certain dose of finished antibodies.
The mechanism of the action of the introduced antibodies was not fully studied, although there is an assumption that these antibodies react with erythrocytes of the fetus that fall to the mother's bloodstream most often during childbirth or when conducting invasive procedures, and the mother's own protective system does not have time to react to foreign erythrocytes, That is, the suppression of the primary immune reaction of the mother is being suppressed.
In 1963, anti-district immunoglobulin was introduced into the practice of doctors, which made it possible to reduce the level of sensitization of women significantly.
What needs to be taken to prevent rhesus conflict? 1. If a woman has a rhesus-negative blood, no matter what a rhesus factor at the father's father, it is necessary to pass the blood to determine the antibody antibodies between the first visit to the doctor and 18-20 weeks.
The early definition of the titer of antibodies is carried out only in those women who, in the past there were cases of rhesus conflict or the birth of children with a hemolytic disease of the newborn. 2. If the titer is up to 1: 4, the re-analyzing of blood on antibodies should be carried out at the 28th week of pregnancy, or earlier when detecting deviations in the development of the fetus.
In some medical institutions, the level of antibodies are watching every 6-8 weeks. 3. If in 28 weeks of pregnancy, the titer 1: 4 and less, it is necessary to introduce the first dose of anti -usus antibodies (vaccine). This vaccine is safe for pregnant women. 4.
If a titer is up to 20 weeks more than 1: 4, an additional definition of the anti -usus antibody titer is 1-2 weeks, or more often, depending on the dynamics of its growth and the state of the fetus. 5. If the woman has detected antibodies, it is necessary to monitor the state of the fetus with the help of an ultrasound (once every 1-2 weeks), including Doppler Ultrasound (after 24 weeks).
With the deterioration of the state of the fetus, it is necessary to conduct intrauterine transfusion of the blood of the fetus. If the ability to conduct intrauterine blood transfusion does not exist, discuss the question of the delivery. Expectant tactics can lead to fetal death. 6.
After childbirth, it is important to prevent future reserves-conflict, therefore, for 72 hours, a newborn blood group is determined. If the baby's blood group is rezes-negative, in the second dose of the vaccine woman does not need. If the blood group is a reserves-positive, it is necessary to introduce mothers of anti -usus antibodies in their absence.
If the mother has antibodies during pregnancy, it is useless to introduce anti-pregnant immunoglobulins. The introduction of antibodies in the presence of antibodies in the blood of a pregnant woman is carried out as a special scheme for a special scheme in very rare cases for the treatment of anti -usus sensitization after numerous losses of pregnancy. 7.
My girlfriend almost 2 years ago gave birth to a healthy girl. She also has Rus and it was the second B. She donated the blood for the antibodies, and she didn't have them all B. And if they were, she said, too, anything terrible, such as it is somehow treated. We in the LCD hanging a poster on the wall with the inscription: Negative Rhus is not a sentence. So do not worry, everything will be fine! Find a good doctor and consult him on this topic, he will calm you!
I have been carrying the third with the detention. Rhow without any injections. There was never any conflict.
as a special-to-conflict pregnancy, you can tell you that you have a chance to give birth and make a healthy child you have))) It may well be that antibodies did not have time to work out, but the chance is small. Just you need to keep the next pregnancy carefully.
As soon as you learn about an interesting position, insist that the gynecologist gives you the direction of blood on the antibodies to the rhesus conflict. It is necessary to take from 10 weeks, even if the gynecologist will say early, do not listen and insist on early blood flow.
If everything is in order and antibodies are not detected, then they will need to take them 1 time per month and so up to 28 weeks. If the antibody period was not discovered for this term, then ask for an injection of immunoglobulin to you. It should be done on time from 28 to 32 weeks. After the injection in the blood, a slight titer of antibodies 1: 4 is approximately normal.
After the injection and before the birth, no more action is usually undertaken, since there is no need for this. After Toggo, as you give birth, the baby take blood to the rhesus, in the event that it turns out to be positive, you are made another injection of immunoglobulin, be sure to remind it in the maternity hospital.
I have exactly the same situation as yours. ZB was in 2007. The antibodies were not in the second b and on 28 springs of immunoglobulin. And after childbirth, too, colole, since the beauty was positive))).
Yes, it turned out, two frozen in a row 2007 and 2008, the injections did not do after cleaning, pregnancy in 2010 made imuneoglobulin at 28 week and after childbirth, 2012 is all the same. Good luck to you and God to help.
The second pregnancy is easier: why? Qigong or Yoga during pregnancy?
When I got pregnant for the first time, I learned everyone, as far as it hurts, and I can calmly survive them. I want to immediately tell - the pain was unreal. And even after almost five years already, thoughts about how painful it was not evaporated. Of course, I could survive it, as we experienced all the women who themselves gave birth, but still, it's incredible pain and still torment me - questions -
The program of conducting multiple pregnancy in the period after 22 weeks. Consultation of doctors: obstetrician-gynecologist - 4 times the therapist - 2 times ophthalmologist - 1 ...
Healthy, strong abdominal press is a reliable barrier on the way of most diseases of the spine. Learn how to simply maintain your abdominal muscles in a tone and working condition every day ...
Throughout life, women have discharge from the vagina. Their consistency and abundance are associated with the phase of the menstrual cycle. For example, selection
Purulent discharge from the vagina in women (during pregnancy) are the main causes, treatment methods in the NJMED medical clinic.
White selection after sex. Experienced venereologist: After sex, white highlights appear. Near the metro weekend in Moscow.
What are the selection after pregnancy.
Menstruation or bleeding: When are monthly periods begin after drug interrupts, and which features can be?
Isolation after surgical abortion - a natural phenomenon to which it is necessary to be a ready-made woman, resolved to interrupt pregnancy. In the process of operation, damage to small vessels on the uterine wall occurs, which leads to natural discharges identical to menstrual.
Selection after ovulation before delay can tell a woman about the occurrence of pregnancy. What is the secretion in the early deadlines before the delay? How does it differ from the "non-embled" cycles? Is this a significant sign? What are they talking about pink, brown, white discharge?
Signs of normal and pathological discharge in the second trimester. Why the pathological secret appears from the vagina and how is treated. Prevention measures.
How does the miscarriage manifest? How to prevent? Will folk remedies help? What medicines are prescribed? May be complications? Answers to these questions and not only read the article from doctors on Yellmed. U.
Pharmacy network "Socialochka. f "in Moscow,. A wide range of drugs, cosmetics, bars at affordable prices. Shares, discounts and special offers are waiting for you on our website.
Tablets for drug interrupting pregnancy are synthetic drugs that were created in 1980 in France during research in the field of steroid synthesis. A year later, they passed the first clinical trials in Geneva. In Russia, such pills were registered in 1999.
The pilot project of the FSS in 2021 finally got to all the corners of our immense homeland. Those regions who have long moved to this project have already passed the adaptation step and work literally "on autopilot", sending out data registry without problems. But for the remaining regions, who just entered the project direct